COP26: What Is Climate Change Adaptation, And Why Is It Important For Human Survival?

COP26: What Is Climate Change Adaptation, And Why Is It Important For Human Survival?

Highlights
  • Adaptation efforts are needed to help people cope with climate change: UN
  • Low-income countries tend to be more vulnerable to climate risks: Expert
  • Developed nations have pledged $100 billion/year for climate actions

New Delhi: According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), in the wake of the ‘code red’ warning issued by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), countries are waking up to the need to be better prepared for climate change impacts and plan climate change adaptation or climate adaptation in a better way. At the ongoing climate summit 26th Conference of Parties (COP26) at Glasgow, the countries have gathered to not only discuss about how to limit global warming but also about how to adapt to a warmer world and cope with impacts of climate change that are already happening, as well as prepare for future impacts. The UNEP has said that there is a need to dramatically boost climate adaptation especially in terms of financing and implementation of adaptation actions. But what is climate change adaptation and why does it matter?

Also Read: Explainer: What Is COP26 And Why Is It So Important For Tackling Climate Change Crisis?

What Does Climate Change Adaptation Mean?

Climate change adaptation refers to making adjustments in ecological, social, or economic systems and make it more resilient to the impact of actual or expected climate change, as per the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

Why Is Climate Adaptation Needed?

According to D. Raghunandan, Scientist and a member of the Delhi Science Forum, climate change is a reality that is affecting millions of people across the world and adaptation efforts are needed to help their survival along with curbing emissions. It is required for helping communities prepare for frequent and more intense floods, more wildfires, challenges of the sea-level rise, droughts, heatwaves, cyclones, storms, he said. Mr Raghunandan added,

Adaptation is climate-resilient development. Adaptation efforts are needed to help our farmers cope with the changing rainfall patterns, land degradation, soil nutrient depletion. It is required for helping out tribal communities who are dependent on forests to be prepared for longer spells of forest fires. Adaptation efforts are needed to keep people from losing their house, livelihood and life and keep them from becoming climate refugees. Adaptation measures can help reduce vulnerability.

Also Read: Climate Change Is For Real, Here’s Why We Need To Limit Global Warming And Act Now

What Does Climate Change Adaptation Consist Of?

The IPCC states that effective adaptation require implementing a mix of different measures to strengthen countries’ resilience and adaptive capacities to climate-related hazards such has cyclonic storms, heavy rains, floods, landslides and others. In its fifth Assessment Report, IPCC listed a number of examples of adaptation measures that the countries across the globe can adopt.

Agriculture

According to IPCC, in order to help farmers enhance drought and pest resistance, enhance yields and provide financial safety net, following adaptation options can be adopted:

– Using biotechnology and genetically modified crops
– Subsidized drought assistance; crop insurance

Biodiversity

To enhance capacity for natural adaptation and migration to changing climatic conditions, protecting species potentially at risk due to climate change, IPCC suggests incorporating the following measures in the policy framework:

– Building migration corridors; expansion of conservation areas
– Protection of critical habitat for vulnerable species
– Assisted migration

Coasts

To preserve public health and safety; minimize property damage and risk of stranded assets near coasts, IPCC suggest:

– Building sea walls and coastal protection structures,
– Managed retreat or the controlled flooding of low-lying coastal areas,
– Migration out of low-lying areas

Water Resources Management

Examples for adaptation measures given by IPCC for increasing water resource reliability and drought resilience and enhancing efficiency of available water resources include:

– Desalination which involves taking the salt out of water to make it drinkable
– Water trading
– Water recycling/reuse

Some of the additional examples listed by IPCC include afforestation and reforestation, raising awareness about climate change and integrating this information into education, enhancing social safety nets, establishing food banks and distributing surplus food, strengthening sanitation, drainage system, maintaining early warning and response systems, integrating indigenous climate observations and making community-based adaptation plans among others.

According to Mr Raghunandan, there will be a global stock-take in 2023 which will how effective are the adaptation measures being implemented by various countries and needs to be done to enhance their adaptive capacity.

In India, the government launched the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) in June 2008 THAT encompasses both climate protection and adaptation. According to the central government, the plan defines eight priorities: solar energy, energy efficiency, sustainable housing, water accessibility, preservation of ecosystem in the Himalayas, reforestation, sustainable agriculture, and strategic knowledge management. There are different ministries responsible to implement adaptation plans for these eight priority areas. States have also prepared State-level Action Plans on Climate Change (SAPCC). However, Mr Raghunandan highlighted that the exact adaptation actions taken and the impact of those actions are yet to be understood. He said,

There is a lack of documentation in India in termS of the impact of climate change on the country and the adaptation measures taken. The government was supposed to release a report on this in 2019 but so far, it has been delayed.

Greater Finance Needed For Better Climate Adaptation

Mr Raghunandan said that low-income countries tend to be more vulnerable to climate risks and so need greater adaptation measures. He said that for this, the developed countries must fulfill the commitment made under the 2015 Paris Agreement of providing $100 billion a year to support the developing countries in covering the cost of adaptation, which they have not done till now.

According to an analysis done by the UNEP, the economic cost of climate adaptation is likely to be at the higher ended of an estimated $140 billion to $300 billion a year by the end of this decade, and $280 billion to $500 billion annually by 2050.

Also Read: COP26: What Is Climate Finance And Why Is It Important For Reducing Emissions

NDTV – Dettol have been working towards a clean and healthy India since 2014 via Banega Swachh India initiative, which is helmed by Campaign Ambassador Amitabh Bachchan. The campaign aims to highlight the inter-dependency of humans and the environment, and of humans on one another with the focus on One Health, One Planet, One Future – Leaving No One Behind. It stresses on the need to take care of, and consider, everyone’s health in India – especially vulnerable communities – the LGBTQ populationindigenous people, India’s different tribes, ethnic and linguistic minorities, people with disabilities, migrants, geographically remote populations, gender and sexual minorities. In wake of the current COVID-19 pandemic, the need for WASH (WaterSanitation and Hygiene) is reaffirmed as handwashing is one of the ways to prevent Coronavirus infection and other diseases. The campaign will continue to raise awareness on the same along with focussing on the importance of nutrition and healthcare for women and children, fight malnutrition, mental wellbeing, self care, science and health, adolescent health & gender awareness. Along with the health of people, the campaign has realised the need to also take care of the health of the eco-system. Our environment is fragile due to human activity,  that is not only over-exploiting available resources, but also generating immense pollution as a result of using and extracting those resources. The imbalance has also led to immense biodiversity loss that has caused one of the biggest threats to human survival – climate change. It has now been described as a “code red for humanity.” The campaign will continue to cover issues like air pollutionwaste managementplastic banmanual scavenging and sanitation workers and menstrual hygiene. Banega Swasth India will also be taking forward the dream of Swasth Bharat, the campaign feels that only a Swachh or clean India where toilets are used and open defecation free (ODF) status achieved as part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2014, can eradicate diseases like diahorrea and the country can become a Swasth or healthy India.

World

25,18,98,205Cases

21,30,04,611Active

3,38,14,080Recovered

50,79,514Deaths

Coronavirus has spread to 196 countries. The total confirmed cases worldwide are 25,18,98,205 and 50,79,514 have died; 21,30,04,611 are active cases and 3,38,14,080 have recovered as on November 12, 2021 at 3:42 am.

India

3,44,14,186 12,516Cases

1,37,4161,140Active

3,38,14,080 13,155Recovered

4,62,690 501Deaths

In India, there are 3,44,14,186 confirmed cases including 4,62,690 deaths. The number of active cases is 1,37,416 and 3,38,14,080 have recovered as on November 12, 2021 at 2:30 am.

State Details



State

Cases

Active

Recovered

Deaths
Maharashtra

66,21,420 997

15,997 47

64,64,948 1,016

1,40,475 28

Kerala

50,42,082 7,224

70,251 833

49,36,791 7,638

35,040 419

Karnataka

29,91,142 286

8,046 10

29,44,958 289

38,138 7

Tamil Nadu

27,12,404 820

10,013 146

26,66,140 962

36,251 4

Andhra Pradesh

20,69,352 286

3,196 24

20,51,747 307

14,409 3

Uttar Pradesh

17,10,243 7

92 0

16,87,247 7

22,904

West Bengal

16,01,586 854

7,973 28

15,74,333 813

19,280 13

Delhi

14,40,270 40

367 21

14,14,812 61

25,091

Odisha

10,44,699 271

2,677 39

10,33,652 308

8,370 2

Chhattisgarh

10,06,271 26

216 7

9,92,468 33

13,587

Rajasthan

9,54,475 4

46 2

9,45,475 2

8,954

Gujarat

8,26,866 40

234 19

8,16,542 21

10,090

Madhya Pradesh

7,92,936 12

76 5

7,82,336 17

10,524

Haryana

7,71,388 20

130 12

7,61,208 8

10,050

Bihar

7,26,148 4

35 2

7,16,452 6

9,661

Telangana

6,73,140 153

3,737 9

6,65,432 160

3,971 2

Assam

6,13,312 251

3,261 18

6,04,009 262

6,042 7

Punjab

6,02,695 48

266 24

5,85,859 21

16,570 3

Jharkhand

3,48,960 12

149 1

3,43,673 13

5,138

Uttarakhand

3,43,987 13

146 4

3,36,438 8

7,403 1

Jammu And Kashmir

3,33,667 177

1,311 81

3,27,908 96

4,448

Himachal Pradesh

2,25,464 145

1,128 33

2,20,536 168

3,800 10

Goa

1,78,422 23

298 4

1,74,753 19

3,371

Puducherry

1,28,332 30

260 12

1,26,209 42

1,863

Mizoram

1,27,548 631

5,838 101

1,21,254 732

456

Manipur

1,24,328 78

761 37

1,21,626 40

1,941 1

Tripura

84,644 9

133 1

83,695 10

816

Meghalaya

83,962 20

273 45

82,227 64

1,462 1

Chandigarh

65,376 3

23 1

64,533 2

820

Arunachal Pradesh

55,208 6

44 3

54,884 9

280

Sikkim

32,080 6

126 2

31,554 4

400

Nagaland

31,966 6

172 0

31,102 6

692

Ladakh

21,098 11

130 1

20,759 10

209

Dadra And Nagar Haveli

10,682

0 0

10,678

4

Lakshadweep

10,365

0 0

10,314

51

Andaman And Nicobar Islands

7,668 3

11 2

7,528 1

129

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