COP26: How The World's Militaries Hide Their Huge Carbon Emissions

How The World’s Militaries Hide Their Huge Carbon Emissions| News

  • NATO announced “to contribute to the goal of Net Zero emissions by 2050
  • Millitary industry accounts for 5 per cent of all emmisions: Study
  • In 2020, global military expenditure reached nearly USD 2 trillion

London: Climate change leadership requires more than stirring speeches. It means facing up to hard truths. One truth that governments around the world are struggling with is the immense contribution their militaries are making to the climate crisis. For example, the US Department of Defense is the largest institutional consumer of fossil fuels in the world – and the largest institutional emitter. Two of us worked on a 2019 study that showed that if the US military were a country, its fuel usage alone would make it the 47th largest emitter of greenhouse gases in the world, sitting between Peru and Portugal.

In other words, the US military is a more consequential climate actor than many of the industrialised countries gathered at the COP26 summit in Glasgow. Despite the outsized role of militaries, we know surprisingly little about their emissions. This is remarkable given their reach and fossil fuel dependency. Some scientists estimate that, together, militaries and their supporting industries might account for up to 5 per cent of global emissions: more than civilian aviation and shipping combined. One reason we know so little is due to militaries being one of the last highly polluting industries whose emissions do not need to be reported to the United Nations. The US can take the credit for that.

Also Read: Developing Climate Resilience Index (CRI) For The North Eastern Region Of India

In 1997, its negotiating team won a blanket military exemption under the Kyoto climate accord. Speaking in the Senate the following year, the now special presidential envoy for climate, John Kerry, hailed it as “a terrific job”. At present, 46 countries and the European Union are obliged to submit yearly reports on their national emissions under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The 2015 Paris Agreement removed Kyoto’s military exemption but left military emissions reporting voluntary. Our research into this military emissions gap has for the first time shed light on the dire state of global military emissions reporting. Under-reporting is the norm, as is data that is inaccessible, or aggregated with non-military sources.

For example, Canada reports its emissions under multiple IPCC categories, reporting military flights under general transport, and energy for bases under commerical/institutional emissions. Military emissions reporting by the many countries that do not have to report annually to the UNFCCC is even worse. This includes countries with massive military budgets, such as China, India, Saudi Arabia and Israel. That “terrific job” in 1997 has unfortunately cast a long shadow. In 2020, global military expenditure reached nearly USD 2 trillion, and the international community remains largely oblivious to the carbon cost of these dollars, irrespective of where they are spent. This vast military imprint on the Earth’s atmosphere is not on the formal agenda of COP26.

Also Read: Meet Earthshot Prize Winner Whose Innovation Can Address Air Pollution

However, hopes are that it will be for COP27 next year, as countries begin to wake up to their huge military carbon bootprint. In June, the military alliance NATO announced that it would set concrete targets for it “to contribute to the goal of Net Zero emissions by 2050”. Meanwhile, countries like Switzerland and the UK, which have passed domestic legislation setting net zero targets, are finally having to face up to the uncomfortable truth that their defence ministries are the largest institutional emitters within government. While military emissions are gaining attention, the culture of military environmental exceptionalism that birthed it will continue to drive the long war that militaries have been quietly waging on the climate. For all their spending power and political influence, militaries are behind the curve on sustainability.

This was clear from NATO’s additional 2021 pledge to develop a carbon counting methodology for its members to use – an area where militaries are lagging behind other major sectors. Which emissions should militaries count? Should such accounting exercises focus exclusively on fuel use and energy consumption? Or should the operation of the massive, global supply chains – like those run by the US government’s Defense Logistics Agency – also be included?

Emissions from supply chains can be 5.5 times higher than an organisation’s own operational emissions. And what about overseas operations, whether overt or covert, or the wider climatic costs of war and peace, such as landscape degradation, deforestation or rebuilding? Western governments, including institutions like NATO, are busy positioning themselves as leaders on the security implications of the climate crisis. Their credibility on climate security, and on climate action more broadly, will be contingent on their willingness to first face up to some difficult truths about their own contribution to climate change. It will also require far more openness and transparency. Both will be vital for delivering real change, rather than more weapons-grade greenwash. There should be no illusions as to the scale of the challenge governments face. War is a dirty business. Militaries are institutionally complex, and procurement cycles last decades, which can “lock in” emissions. Things will not change overnight, but what they do not count, we can’t see. And what we cannot see, they will not cut.

(Except for the headline, this story has not been edited by NDTV staff and is published from a syndicated feed.)

NDTV – Dettol have been working towards a clean and healthy India since 2014 via Banega Swachh India initiative, which is helmed by Campaign Ambassador Amitabh Bachchan. The campaign aims to highlight the inter-dependency of humans and the environment, and of humans on one another with the focus on One Health, One Planet, One Future – Leaving No One Behind. It stresses on the need to take care of, and consider, everyone’s health in India – especially vulnerable communities – the LGBTQ populationindigenous people, India’s different tribes, ethnic and linguistic minorities, people with disabilities, migrants, geographically remote populations, gender and sexual minorities. In wake of the current COVID-19 pandemic, the need for WASH (WaterSanitation and Hygiene) is reaffirmed as handwashing is one of the ways to prevent Coronavirus infection and other diseases. The campaign will continue to raise awareness on the same along with focussing on the importance of nutrition and healthcare for women and children, fight malnutrition, mental wellbeing, self care, science and health, adolescent health & gender awareness. Along with the health of people, the campaign has realised the need to also take care of the health of the eco-system. Our environment is fragile due to human activity,  that is not only over-exploiting available resources, but also generating immense pollution as a result of using and extracting those resources. The imbalance has also led to immense biodiversity loss that has caused one of the biggest threats to human survival – climate change. It has now been described as a “code red for humanity.” The campaign will continue to cover issues like air pollutionwaste managementplastic banmanual scavenging and sanitation workers and menstrual hygiene. Banega Swasth India will also be taking forward the dream of Swasth Bharat, the campaign feels that only a Swachh or clean India where toilets are used and open defecation free (ODF) status achieved as part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2014, can eradicate diseases like diahorrea and the country can become a Swasth or healthy India.






Coronavirus has spread to 196 countries. The total confirmed cases worldwide are 25,14,15,878 and 50,72,386 have died; 21,25,42,567 are active cases and 3,38,00,925 have recovered as on November 11, 2021 at 4:15 am.


3,44,01,670 13,091Cases


3,38,00,925 13,878Recovered

4,62,189 340Deaths

In India, there are 3,44,01,670 confirmed cases including 4,62,189 deaths. The number of active cases is 1,38,556 and 3,38,00,925 have recovered as on November 11, 2021 at 2:30 am.

State Details






66,20,423 1,094

16,044 899

64,63,932 1,976

1,40,447 17


50,34,858 7,540

71,084 560

49,29,153 7,841

34,621 259


29,90,856 328

8,056 72

29,44,669 247

38,131 9

Tamil Nadu

27,11,584 828

10,159 112

26,65,178 931

36,247 9

Andhra Pradesh

20,69,066 348

3,220 13

20,51,440 358

14,406 3

Uttar Pradesh

17,10,236 14

92 7

16,87,240 6

22,904 1

West Bengal

16,00,732 853

7,945 29

15,73,520 809

19,267 15


14,40,230 54

388 39

14,14,751 15



10,44,428 387

2,716 66

10,33,344 317

8,368 4


10,06,245 25

223 10

9,92,435 34

13,587 1


9,54,471 2

44 1

9,45,473 3



8,26,826 42

215 6

8,16,521 36


Madhya Pradesh

7,92,924 5

81 7

7,82,319 12



7,71,368 13

118 2

7,61,200 11



7,26,144 6

37 3

7,16,446 3



6,72,987 164

3,746 8

6,65,272 171

3,969 1


6,13,061 263

3,279 22

6,03,747 284

6,035 1


6,02,647 31

242 13

5,85,838 17

16,567 1


3,48,948 15

150 4

3,43,660 19



3,43,974 8

142 8

3,36,430 16


Jammu And Kashmir

3,33,490 165

1,230 31

3,27,812 131

4,448 3

Himachal Pradesh

2,25,319 154

1,161 78

2,20,368 71

3,790 5


1,78,399 32

294 9

1,74,734 22

3,371 1


1,28,302 39

272 5

1,26,167 33

1,863 1


1,26,917 531

5,939 157

1,20,522 371

456 3


1,24,250 64

724 17

1,21,586 45

1,940 2


84,635 11

134 13

83,685 24



83,942 28

318 1

82,163 28

1,461 1


65,373 2

22 4

64,531 6


Arunachal Pradesh

55,202 5

47 3

54,875 2



32,074 16

124 2

31,550 14



31,960 9

172 8

31,096 14

692 3


21,087 15

129 4

20,749 11


Dadra And Nagar Haveli


0 0





0 0



Andaman And Nicobar Islands


9 0



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